What is the leading teratogenic cause of mental retardation in infants?

Prenatal toxins

Teratogens are environmental factors that result in permanent structural or functional malformations or death of the embryo or fetus. Many congenital malformations are of unknown origin, but known teratogens include drugs, maternal illnesses and infections, metal toxicity, and physical agents (e.g., radiation).

Also Know, what is the most common teratogenic effect associated with thalidomide? Teratogenicity is the most severe and well-known adverse effect associated with thalidomide. Babies born with malformations such as amelia, phocomelia, bone hypoplasia and absence of bones resulted from the thalidomide tragedy.

One may also ask, what is the most common teratogen?

The most common malformations include craniofacial dysmorphisms, cleft palate, thymic aplasia, and neural tube defects. The tranquilizer thalidomide is one of the most famous and notorious teratogens.

What stage are teratogens most harmful?

Most teratogens are harmful only during a critical window of development (e.g., thalidomide is teratogenic only between days 28 and 50 of pregnancy).

What is the most dangerous teratogen for a fetus?

Known Teratogens angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, such as Zestril and Prinivil. alcohol. aminopterin. androgens, such as methyltestosterone (Android) busulfan (Myleran) carbamazepine (Tegretol) chlorobiphenyls. cocaine.

What are teratogens give 5 examples?

Examples of these teratogens can include mercury, potassium iodide, nuclear fallout radiation, and even high-temperature hot tubs!

What harmful substances can pass from mother to baby?

Tobacco, alcohol and drugs can have harmful effects on anyone’s health. When a pregnant or nursing woman uses these substances, her baby also is exposed to them, for all substances cross the placenta through the umbilical cord and enter into the baby’s bloodstream.

What are 4 teratogens?

Teratogens are classified into four types: physical agents, metabolic conditions, infection, and finally, drugs and chemicals. The word teratogen originates from the Greek word for monster, teratos.

Is aspirin a teratogen?

Aspirin has not been formally assigned to pregnancy category by the FDA. Aspirin use in pregnancy has been associated with alterations in both maternal and fetal hemostasis. In addition, high doses have been associated with increased perinatal mortality, intrauterine growth retardation, and teratogenic effects.

Which organs in the mother’s body are most affected by becoming pregnant?

The main organs and systems affected by a woman’s pregnancy are: Cardiovascular system. Kidneys. Respiratory System. Gastrointestinal System. Skin. Hormones. Liver. Metabolism.

Is smoking a teratogen?

Types of Teratogens Perhaps the two most important teratogens today are alcohol and smoking. They are among the leading preventable causes of birth defects and developmental disabilities. Infectious Agents: Rubella, cytomegalovirus, varicella, herpes simplex, toxoplasma, syphilis, etc.

Is stress a teratogen?

Maternal psychological stress has essentially been conceptualized as a teratogen, that is, an agent that can generate deleterious perinatal and/or developmental outcomes.

Which trimester is the most critical?

The first trimester is the most critical time in your pregnancy. Although the fetus at the end of three months is only about 4 inches long and weighs less than 1 ounce, all of its functions have begun to form — major organs and nervous system, heartbeat, arms, fingers, legs, toes, hair, and buds for future teeth.

Is caffeine a teratogen?

The teratogenic effect of caffeine has been clearly demonstrated in rodents. The sensitivity of different animals species is variable. In humans, caffeine does not present any teratogenic risk. The increased risk of the most common congenital malformations entailed by moderate consumption of caffeine is very slight.

Is alcohol a teratogen?

One teratogen that affects the central nervous system is alcohol. Alcohol, at any time during the pregnancy, has the potential to cause birth defects and health problems in the baby, since the central nervous system is sensitive to teratogens the entire nine months of gestation.

What is the most critical period of fetal development?

In general, major defects of the body and internal organs are more likely to occur between 3 to 12 embryo / fetal weeks. This is the same as 5 to 14 gestational weeks (weeks since the first day of your last period). This is also referred to as the first trimester.

What three factors influence the effects of teratogens?

Various teratogens include drugs, alcohol, tobacco, and other environmental agents. The adverse effects of a teratogen depend on several factors, such as the dose or level of exposure, heredity, age of the teratogen, and any other negative influences.

How do you prevent teratogens?

For a few birth defects, you may be able to decrease your risk by taking certain steps: See your doctor before getting pregnant. Know your risk factors. Take a daily multivitamin before and during pregnancy. Maintain a healthy weight. Use medications wisely. Take care of medical conditions before pregnancy.