What is blast lung injury?

Blast lung injury. “Blast lung” is a clinical diagnosis and is characterized as respiratory difficulty and hypoxia without obvious external injury to the chest. It may be complicated by pneumothoraces and air emboli and may be associated with multiple other injuries.

Blast injuries include both physical and psychologic trauma. Physical trauma includes fractures, respiratory compromise, injuries to soft tissue and internal organs, internal and external blood loss with shock, burns, and sensory impairment, especially of hearing and sight.

Similarly, what are the different levels of injury associated with a blast explosion injury? There are 4 types of blast injury: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary. Primary blast injury is a direct result of the overpressurization wave’s impact on the body. These injuries occur mainly to the gas-filled organs — the auditory, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal systems.

Similarly one may ask, how do you treat blast injuries?

Tertiary blast injuries of the extremity may result in traumatic amputations, fractures, and severe soft-tissue injuries. Quaternary injuries most often are burns. Following treatment and stabilization of immediate life-threatening conditions, all patients are given antibiotic and tetanus prophylaxis.

How bomb blasts cause damage?

Blast wave: When a bomb explodes, the area around the explosion becomes overpressurized, resulting in highly compressed air particles that travel faster than the speed of sound. This initial blast wave inflicts the most damage. When this blast wave reaches a structure or person, two things will initially happen.

What injuries are received during the primary blast phase?

Gas-containing sections of the GI tract are most vulnerable to primary blast effect. This can cause immediate bowel perforation, hemorrhage (ranging from small petechiae to large hematomas), mesenteric shear injuries, solid organ lacerations, and testicular rupture.

What happens to the human body in an explosion?

The main direct, primary effect to humans from an explosion is the sudden increase in pressure that occurs as a blast wave passes. It can cause injury to pressure- sensitive human organs, such as ears and lungs.

How does a blast wave kill you?

The wave would hit the air-filled pockets of your body and instantly compress the gases there, possibly resulting in blocked blood vessels, ruptured lungs, torn internal tissues and even brain hemorrhaging.

What causes death in an explosion?

Blast lung refers to severe pulmonary contusion, bleeding or swelling with damage to alveoli and blood vessels, or a combination of these. It is the most common cause of death among people who initially survive an explosion.

What is a quaternary blast injury?

A tertiary blast injury is a feature of high-energy explosions. This type of injury occurs when people fly through the air and strike other objects. Miscellaneous or quaternary blast injuries encompass all other injuries caused by explosions, such as burns, crush injuries, and toxic inhalations.

How fast does an explosion shockwave travel?

8,050 meters per second

What is a blast effect?

Primary Blast Injury Since only high order explosives create a blast wave, primary blast injuries are unique to high order explosions. The blast wave causes damage to more extensively to air-filled organs. The resulting barotrauma can affect the lungs, auditory organs, the eye, brain, and gastrointestinal tract.

What is a concussion bomb?

A concussion bomb was a weapon. It could be employed by starships as an offensive weapon, and contained an armor-piercing warhead with a small energy pack. Upon detonation, concussion bombs generated a powerful concussive blast which damaged the surrounding area, and also disrupted instrumentation and equipment.

What is a tertiary blast injury?

Injuries caused by these pressure or blast waves are described as primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary. Primary blast injury occurs when the blast wave hits the body. Tertiary blast injury occurs when a person is physically thrown by the blast, which usually causes direct impact trauma.

Which of the following is an example of a primary blast injury?

Examples include burns, angina, crush injuries, asthma or COPD exacerbations due to dust, smoke or toxic fumes. HE explosives can cause all four primary categories of injury, but its unique ability to cause primary blast injury makes it most fearsome.

What is penetrating trauma?

Penetrating trauma is an injury that occurs when an object pierces the skin and enters a tissue of the body, creating an open wound. In blunt, or non-penetrating trauma, there may be an impact, but the skin is not necessarily broken.

How do you treat a shrapnel wound?

Shrapnel wounds (secondary blast injury) are treated as low-velocity gunshot wounds. Hemodynamically unstable patients with significant trauma may benefit from early use of packed red blood cells (PRBC) and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) in a 1:1 ratio, as well as platelets.

What is a low order explosive?

A low explosive is a material that has an explosion velocity of less than 1000 m/s. A low order explosion describes an explosive event where the blast pressure front moves slowly, displacing or heaving (rather than shattering) objects in its path.

Which part of the ear can be ruptured when exposed to explosives?

Tympanic membrane (TM) perforation is typically the most common primary blast injury, because the TM will rupture at lower pressures than the lungs or gastrointestinal organs.